The vigorous development of the electronics industry has promoted the rapid development of many industries. In recent years, the application of electronic products in the automotive industry has become increasingly widespread. The traditional automobile industry has made more efforts in machinery, power, hydraulics and transmission. However, the modern automobile industry relies more on electronic applications, and these electronic applications are playing an increasingly important and potential role in automobiles. Automatic electrification is all used for processing, sensing, information transmission and recording, which cannot be achieved without a printed circuit board. Due to the requirements of automobile modernization and digitization, as well as human requirements for automobile safety, comfort, simple operation and digitization, PCBs have been widely used in the automotive industry. HDI PCBs may have cross-layer blind holes or double-layer structures.
In order to achieve the high reliability and safety of automotive HDI PCB, HDI PCB manufacturers must follow strict strategies and measures, which is the focus of this article.
Automotive PCB type
In automotive circuit boards, traditional single-layer PCBs, double-layer PCBs and multi-layer PCBs can be used. In recent years, the wide application of HDI PCBs has become the first choice for automotive electronic products. There is indeed an essential difference between ordinary HDI PCB and automotive HDI PCB: the former emphasizes practicality and versatility and provides services for consumer electronic products, while the latter focuses on reliability, safety and high quality.
Classification and application of automotive HDIPCB
HDI PCB can be divided into single-layer HDI PCB, double-layer build-up PCB and three-layer build-up PCB. Here, the layer refers to the layer of prepreg.
Automotive electronics are usually used in two types of applications:
a. Before being used in conjunction with the vehicle’s mechanical systems (such as engine, chassis and vehicle digital control), automotive electronic control equipment will not operate effectively, especially the electronic fuel injection system, anti-lock braking system (ABS), and anti-skid control (ASC), traction control, electronically controlled suspension (ECS), electronic automatic transmission (EAT) and electronic power steering (EPS).
b. Vehicle-mounted vehicle equipment that can be used independently in the vehicle environment and has nothing to do with vehicle performance, including vehicle information system or vehicle computer, GPS system, vehicle video system, vehicle communication system and Internet device functions, these functions are implemented by the equipment supported by HDI PCB , These devices are responsible for signal transmission and a large amount of control.
Requirements for manufacturers of automotive HDIPCB
Due to the high reliability and safety of automotive HDI printed circuit boards, automotive HDI PCB manufacturers must meet high-level requirements:
a. Automotive HDIPCB manufacturers must adhere to the integrated management system and quality management system that play a key role in judging or supporting the management level of PCB manufacturers. Some systems cannot be owned by the PCB manufacturer until they are verified by a third party. For example, automotive PCB manufacturers must pass ISO9001 and ISO/IATF16949 certification.
b. HDI PCB manufacturers must have solid technology and high HDI manufacturing capabilities. Specifically, manufacturers specializing in the manufacture of automotive circuit boards must manufacture circuit boards with a line width/spacing of at least 75μm/75μm and a two-layer structure. It is recognized that HDI PCB manufacturers must have a process capability index (CPK) of at least 1.33 and a device manufacturing capability (CMK) of at least 1.67. Unless approved and confirmed by the customer, no modification shall be made in the future manufacturing.
c. Automotive HDIPCB manufacturers must follow the most stringent rules when selecting PCB raw materials, because they play a key role in determining the reliability and performance of the final PCB.
Material requirements for automotive HDI PCB
•Core board and prepreg. They are the most basic and critical elements for manufacturing automotive HDI PCBs. When it comes to the raw materials of HDI PCB, the core board and prepreg are the main considerations. Generally, HDI core boards and dielectric layers are relatively thin. Therefore, a layer of prepreg is sufficient for use on consumer HDI boards. However, automotive HDI PCBs must rely on the lamination of at least two layers of prepreg, because if cavities or insufficient adhesives occur, a single layer of prepreg may lead to a decrease in insulation resistance. After that, the end result may be a failure of the entire board or product.
• Solder mask. As a protective layer directly covering the surface circuit board, the solder mask also plays the same important role as the core board and prepreg. In addition to protecting the external circuit, the solder mask also plays a vital role in the appearance, quality and reliability of the product. Therefore, the solder mask on the automotive circuit board must meet the most stringent requirements. The solder mask must pass a number of reliability tests, including heat storage test and peel strength test.
Many strategies and measures can also be used to judge automotive HDI PCB manufacturers, including material supplier certification, technical conditions in the process, parameter determination and application of accessories, etc., to find reliable HDI PCB manufacturers.
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